01.png

In our current sociocultural climate in the United States, the words “diversity” and “inclusion” have become catchwords for gender and racial equality in education, business and politics, and inroads have been made, both organically and through legislation, to promote diversity in those sectors. However, in many ways, people with disabilities have been excluded from the conversation. Since 2018, Opporty has been committed to the UN Global Compact corporate responsibility initiative and its principles in the areas of human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption.

In 2015, the United Nations drafted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address issues of social and economic development, including poverty, hunger, health, education, gender equality, social justice, climate change, and other issues affecting the global populace. The multi-year initiative aims to drive support on the part of businesses to achieve the SDGs by 2030. One of the stated principles of the compact is to eliminate discrimination with respect to employment and occupation. In particular, the initiative recognizes small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as important contributors to local economic stability.

Nearly 30 years after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, the disabled population is still underrepresented in the workplace, despite evidence that disabled employees can be valuable assets that positively affect both revenue and company culture. In SMEs, defined in the United States as companies employing fewer than 500 people, disabled employees are even more underrepresented than in large corporations.

This paper will explore the advantages and challenges SMEs face in hiring disabled workers, and provide insight into the types of jobs for which people with specific disabilities are best suited. It is hoped that by educating SMEs and larger businesses about this under-tapped labor pool, we will be able to contribute to the UN Global initiative, and reduce discrimination against disabled workers on a global scale. By hiring disabled workers, SMEs can make a significant contribution to realizing the UN 2030 SDGs.

Disability Defined

02.png

The term “disability” covers a broad spectrum of conditions ranging from mild to severe, and encompassing both physical and cognitive impairment. According to the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS), disability is defined as experiencing extreme difficulty in any of four basic functional areas: hearing, vision, cognition, and ambulation. The ACS definition is expanded to include difficulties with self-care  and independent living, including bathing, dressing, and daily activities like shopping and cooking. Psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities are also included in the full spectrum of disability.

Disability encompasses interactions of physical, emotional, and mental health, and the disabled person’s physical environment. Disability often limits full participation in school, work, home, and community (United States Census Bureau, American Community Survey). Based on data provided by the US Census Bureau, nearly 20% of the US population has an impairment of hearing, vision, cognition, ambulation, or difficulty with self-care or independent living. (US Census Bureau, American Community Survey).

Based on the American Community Survey of 2015, over 20 million Americans experienced serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; nearly 14 million Americans had difficulty with self-care or independent living, around 11 million Americans reported significant hearing difficulty (with over 5.5 million using hearing devices; and nearly seven million reported significant difficulty with vision.

People with disabilities are one of the largest minority groups in the United States. Disabled workers are often underrepresented and underpaid, earning significantly less than their non-disabled counterparts. They are less likely to have a job, and if they are employed, they are more likely to live in poverty, or to be in low-paying or part-time work. According to the United States Census Bureau, disabled workers earned a median income of $21,572, while non-disabled workers brought home $31,872.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

03.png

In 1990, President George H. W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act, or ADA, that applies to organizations with more than 15 employees, including private businesses, government agencies, employment agencies and labor organizations. Title I of the Act prohibits discrimination against qualified candidates with disabilities in job application, hiring, firing, promotion, pay, benefits, job training, and other employment-related interactions. (USDL, “Americans with Disabilities Act”)

The ADA includes protections for both employers and employees, and businesses are not required to hire unqualified job candidates in order to comply with the law. Moreover, the law protects job candidates who are not disabled by prohibiting preferential hiring of disabled applicants based solely on their disability. Employers are free to hire the most qualified candidate for the job, regardless of disability status.

In some instances, employers may be required to make reasonable accommodations to ensure that the work environment is such that a disabled employee can perform essential job functions, and be given equal access to benefits available to other workers. The prospect of making structural or other accommodations is frequently seen as an impediment to hiring disabled workers. However, according to the US Department of Labor, 57 percent of accommodations made for disabled employees cost nothing, and most cost less than $500. To offset the cost, tax incentives are available to employers who incur expenses when making changes. (USDL, “Employers and the ADA”) Small businesses with less than 15 employees are exempt from ADA mandates, but compliant small businesses can take advantage of tax incentives.

Common Misconceptions About Hiring Disabled Employees

04.png

There are a number of reasons why SMEs are hesitant to hire disabled employees. Stereotypes on the part of employers often evoke fears that are not grounded in first-hand experience. Some fear that special needs and physical limitations will reduce productivity, and small businesses on a tight budget may be concerned about the cost of structural accommodations. Some disabled workers may require specialized equipment to communicate or perform work tasks, which could amount to additional expenses. Some potential employers may worry that a disabled coworker will not assimilate well into workplace culture, or that customers will react negatively to disabled employees (Lengnick-Hall et al. “Why Employers Don’t Hire”)

A recent survey of employers conducted by Cornell University’s Employment and Disability Institute in collaboration with the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) identified 10 commonly perceived barriers to hiring disabled workers and ranked them according to survey results.

  • Over 50 percent of employers cited lack of qualified applicants
  • Concerns about lack of related job experience were expressed by 36.1 percent
  • Lack of job-specific skills and training were concerns of 29.8 percent
  • Lack of supervisors’ knowledge about accommodations and cost of accommodations were cited by 24.5 and 20.4 percent respectively
  • Concerns about workplace attitudes and stereotypes were expressed by 16.8 percent
  • Additional supervisory costs and concerns about performance and productivity were both cited by 10.2 percent of respondents
  • Absenteeism and training costs were concerns of 9.9 and 8.8 percent of respondents (Cornell University, “Employer  Practices”).

Clearly, there exists a stigma about hiring disabled workers that must be dispelled before issues of workplace discrimination can be addressed.

Business Advantages of Hiring Disabled Employees for SMEs

05.png

Despite perceived barriers, there are multiple advantages to including disabled employees in the workforce. To offset expenses related to hiring disabled employees, there are multiple tax benefits available.

  • The Disabled Access Credit provides small businesses with a non-refundable credit to help cover the cost of  providing access to persons with disabilities. Small businesses that earned under a million dollars in a tax year or that had fewer than 30 full time employees are eligible, for every year that expenses are incurred.

  • The Architectural Barrier Removal Tax Deduction provides an incentive for businesses of any size to remove structural and transportation barriers for the disabled and elderly. Qualified expenses may be claimed for amounts up to $15,000 per year when listed as a separate expense, and may be combined with the Disabled Access Credit.

  • The Work Opportunity Tax Credit provides incentives for employers to hire qualified disabled employees and veterans. The credit ranges from $1,200 to $9,600, depending on the employee and length of employment  (IRS, “Tax Benefits”).

When it comes to a company’s public image, hiring disabled workers can boost the public’s perception of the brand, leading to increased brand loyalty and repeat sales. Moreover, the disabled community in itself represents a trillion dollar market segment, with one in five adults in the US claiming disabled status. Contrary to the fears of many prospective employers, disabled workers are often more reliable than their able-bodies co-workers, less prone to absenteeism and more likely to stay with the company for an extended time period, reducing costly turnover. Disabled employees  tend to be dedicated and productive, producing a high quality of work that positively influences profitability (Disability Campaign, “7 Benefits”).

From a sociocultural perspective, fears that disabled employees will not fare well within the context of workplace culture are largely unfounded. Disabled workers bring diversity to the workplace that can boost morale and encourage collaboration. In smaller businesses in particular, where culture is more malleable, a qualified disabled worker who is able to perform the job will quickly find a place in the social hierarchy.

A recent survey by Chan et al (2010) found that small companies with 30 to 100 employees expressed positive attitudes toward hiring disabled workers, with expectations of commitment and company loyalty to the company. They felt that workers with disabilities would add altruistic value to the company culture (Chan et al., “Demand-side factors”). Nevertheless, a study by Fraser et al. (2010) found that both small and mid-sized companies had concerns about the ability of disabled workers to perform their jobs,  and mid-sized companies had more concerns about how mid-level managers and co-workers would react to a disabled employee. The authors concluded that both senior and mid-level management would benefit from educational information to better understand the benefits and incentives available to companies that employ disabled workers (Fraser et al., “Understanding Employers’ Intentions”).

SMEs and Disabled Workers

06.png

SMEs are well-suited to benefit from hiring employees with disabilities. Smaller businesses are often under-capitalized, and stand to benefit from increased revenue by hiring talented disabled employees. Small companies often do not have human resource departments and written job descriptions, and have more autonomy in hiring, The decision-maker is more accessible in smaller companies, and hiring is more personal. Most small business owners are craftsmen or specialists, not business school graduates, and are more likely to be flexible in hiring and job creation (Callahan et al., "Twenty Years of Employment”).

Jobs for Disabled Workers by Category

07.png

Despite perceived or real barriers to hiring employees with disabilities, there exists a broad spectrum of employment opportunities. The following tables list jobs by category of disability, along with average salaries, fields of study, degrees required and projected job growth.



Note that average figures and standardized requirements are provided in the table below. They may vary, depending on a disability type, government and state policies, and job requirements of specific employers.


Categories
Physically
Disabled
Mentally
Disabled
Visually
Impaired
Hearing
Impaired
People with
Psychiatric
Disorders
People with
Learning
Disabilities

Physically Disabled

A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.

Accountant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth
Accounting,
or a related field
A bachelor’s degree in accounting,
a master’s degree for top-level
positions
$68K 10%

Accounting Clerk (Assistant)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Accounting

Business, or a related field

A high school diploma; an associate's degree in business or accounting $38K 9%

Account Manager

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Business administration

Sales management

Advertising, communications, or public relations

Varies, depending on the field

A bachelor's degree in business administration with a minor in marketing

$51K

7%

App Developer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer science

Management information systems

Data science

IT security

An associate's or bachelor's degree in computer science or some similar discipline

$45K - $98K

19%

Auditor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Accounting, or a related field

An associate’s degree in accounting

A master's degree in accounting

 

$54K

11%

Computer Support Specialist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer support specialist

A certificate or associate's degree in information technology, computer science, or desktop support

A bachelor's degree in Computer Support Specialist

 

$52K

 

12%

Copy Editor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Journalism

English

A bachelor's degree in journalism, English, or a related field

 

 

$59K

 

-5%

Copywriter (Content Writer)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

English

Advertising

Marketing

Journalism

A bachelor's degree in English, advertising, journalism, or marketing

 

 

$48K

 

8%

Data Analyst

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Mathematics

Statistics

Computer science, or related field

A bachelor's degree is needed for most entry-level jobs

A master's degree for upper-level jobs

 

 

$55K - $82K

 

19%

Financial Analyst

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Business administration

Finance

Economics

Statistics

Accounting

A bachelor's degree in business administration, finance, economics, statistics or accounting

A master's degree in business administration or finance

 

$56K

 

12%

Financial Planner (Financial Advisor)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Finance

Economics

Business

Statistics

A bachelor's degree in finance, economics, business, or statistics

 

$57K

 

15%

Graphic Designer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Graphic design

A bachelor's degree in graphic design

 

 

$42K

 

1%

Management Consultant (Management Analyst)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Accounting

Business

Business administration

Finance

Marketing

Management

Commerce

A bachelor's degree in accounting, business, finance, marketing, management or a related field

 

$86K

 

14%

Marketing Manager

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Marketing

Business administration

Business

A bachelor's degree in marketing or business administration

A master's degree in marketing or business administration

 

 

$97K

 

10%

Marketing Specialist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Marketing

Business

Market research

A bachelor's degree in marketing, business, market research, or a related field

 

 

$66K

 

19%

Market Research Analyst

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Market research

Statistics

Math

Computer science

Business administration

A bachelor's degree in market research or a related field

 

$62K

 

23%

Mathematician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Math, or a related field

A bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree

 

 

$105K

 

30%

Medical Office Assistant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Medical assisting

A certificate, diploma or associate's degree in medical assisting

 

 

$26K

 

29%

Medical Services Manager (Healthcare Executive)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Health services management

Health services administration

A bachelor's and a master's degrees in health services management or administration

 

 

$109K

 

20%

Medical Technician (Medical Technologist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Medical laboratory technology

Life sciences

Science

Associate of Science

Associate of Applied Science

An associate's degree or a postsecondary certificate

A bachelor's degree in medical laboratory technology or life sciences

 

$40K

 

24%

Medical Transcriptionist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Medical transcription

A certificate or an associate's degree in medical transcription

 

$27K

 

14%

Optometrist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Optometry

A bachelor’s degree in optometry (+ licensure and certification)

 

$113K

 

27%

Pharmaceutical Sales (Pharma Sales Representative)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Business

Marketing

Biological sciences

Varies, depending on the field

A bachelor’s degree in biological sciences, marketing, business, or any respective field

$122K

 

16%

Pharmacist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Pharmacy

A bachelor's and a master’s degree in pharmacy (+ postsecondary courses)

 

$90K - $140K

 

6%

Pharmacy Aide (Pharmacist Assistant)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Pharmacist assistant or pharmacy technology certificate programs

A high school diploma (+ postsecondary education)

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degrees may be helpful for higher level positions

 

$35K

 

9%

Pharmacy Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Pharmacy technician

A diploma or certification program of a pharmacy technician school

An associate’s degree

$32K

 

12%

Physician Assistant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Physician assistant studies

Health science

Medical science

A bachelor's degree and a master’s degree in physician assistant program

 

$102K

 

37%

Psychiatrist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychiatry

Psychology

Physical sciences

A bachelor's degree and a master’s degree in psychiatry, psychology, or a related field

$186K

 

15%

Research Assistant (Medical)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Life science

Medical technology

Biology

Biotechnology

Psychology, or any related field

A bachelor's degree in a life science or medical technology (entry-level jobs)

$37K

 

16%

Sales Associate

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Sales

Marketing, or a related field

No degree, or an associate's degree in sales,marketing, or a in a field that is relevant to the products they sell

 

$55K

 

3%

Sales Representative

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Sales

Marketing, or a related field

A bachelor's degree in a field relevant to the products they sell

 

$28K

 

5%

Self-employed Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Sales

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education or degree required

 

$27K

 

8%

Statistician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Mathematics

Economics

Computer science

A bachelor’s and a master’s degree in mathematics, economics, computer science, or another quantitative field

 

$84K

 

34%

Teacher

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

A bachelor’s / a master’s degree in the field in which they teach

$38K

 

7-8%

Vocational Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychology

Sociology

Counseling

Mental health

Community counseling

A bachelor's degree in psychology, sociology, counseling

A master's degree in mental health or community counseling

$49K

 

13%

Web Developer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer science

A bachelor's degree in computer science, or a related field

 

$66K

 

15%

Writer (Author)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

English

Journalism

Communications

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A college degree

A bachelor’s degree in English, Journalism or Communications

 

$62K

 

8%

 

Mentally Disabled

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode.

Animator (Multimedia Artist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer animation

Fine arts, or a related field

An associate’s or a a bachelor's degree in computer animation

fine arts, and art-related fields

$48K - $72K

 

8%

Applications Software Developer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer science

Software development

Software engineering, or a related field

 

A bachelor’s / a master’s degree in computer science, software engineering

$79K

 

19%

Artist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Arts

Liberal arts

 

Formally no degree is required

A bachelor’s and a master’s degree in arts, fine arts, liberal arts, or art-related fields

 

$53K

 

6%

Baker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

 

Apprenticeship, training program, or an associate's degree

Licensure and certifications are optional

 

$30K

 

8%

Broadcast Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Audiovisual communications

Communications technology

Radio and television broadcasting technology

 

An associate's degree or bachelor's degree in audiovisual communications,

communications technology, radio and television broadcasting technology

$46K

 

8%

Camera Operator

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Videography

Journalism

Television

Film, or a related field

 

An associate's / a bachelor's degree in videography, journalism, television, and film

 

$48K

 

13%

Computer Programmer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer science

Mathematics

Information systems

 

A bachelor's degree in computer science, mathematics or information systems

A master’s degree may be required for upper-level positions

 

$71K - $130K

 

-7%

Delivery Services Driver

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

 

A high school education

No degree

$33K

 

4%

Fashion Designer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Fashion design

Fine arts

Visual arts

 

An associate's / bachelor's /master's degrees in fashion design, fine arts, visual arts, or a related field

$67K

 

3%

Graphic Artist (Graphic Designer)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Graphic design

Visual arts

Fine arts

 

A bachelor's in graphic design, visual arts, fine arts, or a related field


$44K

 

4%

Heavy Equipment Operator

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

 

Apprenticeship or postsecondary program (+ licensure and certification)

No degree

 

$42K

 

12%

Illustrator

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Fine arts

Painting

Graphic design

Illustration

 

A bachelor's degree in painting, graphic design or illustration

$42K

 

2%

Interior Designer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Fine arts

Interior design

Drawing

Computer-aided design

 

An associate’s / a bachelor’s degrees in arts and related fields

$44K

 

4%

Multimedia Artist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Fine arts

Visual arts

Computer graphics

Computer animation

Animation

Design

 

A bachelor’s degree in fine arts, computer graphics, animation, or a related field

$64K

 

8%

Painter

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Painting

Fine arts

Miscellaneous, or no degree

 

No formal education

An associate's / bachelor's / master's degrees in painting, fine arts, or a related fiel

 

$37K

 

6%

Photographer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Photography

Other art-related Field(s) of Study

 

No degree

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree in photography in fields related to fine and visual art

 

 

$62K

 

-6%

Restaurant Chef

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous culinary Field(s) of Study (culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, professional cooking, etc.)

Business management

Human resources

 

An associate’s / a bachelor’s degree / a master’s degree (miscellaneous)

$75K

 

10%

Restaurant Cook

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous culinary Field(s) of Study (culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, professional cooking, etc.)

No degree

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree miscellaneous culinary arts may be helpful

 

$25K - $45K

 

10%

Sculptor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Sculpture

A high school diploma

A college degree in sculpture

$31K

 

6%

Sound Engineering Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Audio production

A high school diploma

An associate's degree or postsecondary education in audio production

$54K

 

8%

Systems Software Developer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer science

Software engineering

Mathematics, or a related field

A bachelor's and a master’s degrees in computer science, software engineering

 

$104K

 

11%

Tractor Driver

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

No degree

 

$23K

 

6%

Truck Driver

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education / a high school diploma (+ licensure and certification)

 

$67K

 

6%

Veterinary Assistant (Laboratory Animal caretaker)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Laboratory animal care

A high school diploma (GED)

An associate's or bachelor's degree (+ licensure and certification)

 

$30K

 

19%

Visually Impaired

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.

Audio Equipment Technician (Sound Engineering Technician)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Film

Video

TV broadcasting, or a related field

No degree for entry-level positions

An associate's degree or a bachelor's degree in film, video or TV broadcasting for upper-level positions


$45K

 

7%

Audio Producer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Journalism

Broadcasting

Communications

A high school diploma or no degree

A bachelor's degree in journalism, broadcasting, or communications for upper-level positions

 

$45K - $48K

 

7%

Audio Recording Engineer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Audio engineering

Audiotechnology

Broadcast technology

Music production, or a related field

An associate’s degree in audiotechnology, broadcast technology or music production

A bachelor’s degree in audio engineering

 

$46K

 

7%

Call Center Specialist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

An associate’s degree in technology or a field related to a job’s specifics may be required


$28K

 

5%

Childcare Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Early childhood education

A high school diploma

An associate's degree (or a certificate) in early childhood education may be required for higher level positions


$19K

 

7%

Chiropractor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

Chiropractic technology

The Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.)

An associate’s or a bachelor's degrees (+ licensure and certification)


$67K

 

12%

Chiropractic Assistant (Chiropractic Technician)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

Chiropractic technology

An associate's degree program in chiropractic technology


$24K

 

23%

Coach (Life Coach)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree; psychology

A high school diploma

A certified life coach training program


$52K

 

16%

Customer Service Representative

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

On-the-job training


$37K

 

5%

DJ (Disc Jockey)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Broadcast journalism

Communications

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

A bachelor's degree in broadcast journalism, communications, or a similar field


$40K - $60K

 

-14%

Elementary School Teacher

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Elementary education

A bachelor's degree in elementary education (+ licensure and certification)


$56K

 

7%

Factory Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree may be required for higher level positions


$27K

 

6%

Guidance Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Counseling

School counseling

Education

Education psychology

Psychology

A bachelor's degree in areas such as counseling, education, or psychology

A master's degree in school counseling or education psychology


$53K

 

8%

Masseuse (Massage Therapist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Massage therapy, or a related field

A high school diploma or GED for admission

An associate's or a bachelor’s degree in massage therapy, or a related field


$40K

 

26%

Motivational Speaker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education or degree required


$107K (~$10K - ~$312K)

 

3%

Musician (Singer)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No degree required

An associate's or a bachelor's degree may be helpful


$40K

 

6%

Occupational Therapist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Occupational therapy

Biology

Psychology

Sociology

Kinesiology

Health science

A bachelor's degree in occupational therapy, or a related field for entry-level positions

$82K

 

24%

Occupational Therapy Assistant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Occupational therapy

A high school diploma

An associate's degree in occupational therapy

$59K

 

28%

Paralegal (Legal Assistants)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Paralegal studies

An associate's degree or a bachelor's degree in paralegal work (for upper-level positions)

$53K

 

15%

Psychologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychology

A bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees in psychology

$66K

 

14%

Radio Broadcaster

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Journalism

Broadcasting

Communications

A high school diploma

A bachelor's degree in journalism, broadcasting, or communications

$40K - $51K

 

-14%

Rehabilitation Teacher (Rehabilitation Instructor)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Orientation and mobility Rehabilitation teaching

A bachelor’s degree in orientation and mobility, rehabilitation teaching

$41K

 

13%

Social Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

Sociology

Psychology

A bachelor’s degree in social work, or a related field

$43K

 

16%

Substitute Teacher

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

A bachelor's degree in the field in which they teach

$31K

 

6%

Teacher Assistant (Teacher’s Aide)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Education

Assistant teaching

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

An associate's degree in education, assistant teaching, or a related subject like elementary education

$27K

 

8%

Tutor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma

A bachelor’s / master’s / doctoral degrees in subject matter fields

$26K

 

8%

Hearing Impaired

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. In children hearing problems can affect the ability to learn spoken language and in adults it can cause work related difficulties. In some people, particularly older people, hearing loss can result in loneliness. Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent.

Actor (Performer)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Theater arts

Drama, acting, and performing

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education required

A bachelor's degree in theater arts, drama, acting and performing

$55K

 

12%

Administrative Assistant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma or GED

An associate’s degree may be required for upper level positions

$40K

 

6%

Architectural Drafter

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Artchitectiral drafting

A certificate or an associate's degree in architectural drafting

$43K

 

7%

Astronomer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Science

Astronomy

A a bachelor's and a master’s degrees in science

A Ph.D. in astronomy

$110K

 

14%

Atmospheric Scientist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Meteorology

Atmospheric science

A bachelor's degree in meteorology, atmospheric science, or a related field

Higher level positions require a master’s degree or a Ph.D.

$95K

 

12%

Biologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Biology

An undergraduate degree in biology for entry-level research positions

A master’s and a doctoral degree in a field of application

$53K

 

8%

Biology Lab Assistant (Assistant Biologist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Biology

A bachelor's degree in biology

$49K

 

10%

Carpenter

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education required

A high school diploma (+ licensure, certification, and apprenticeships)

$43K

 

8%

Chemist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Chemistry

A bachelor's degree in chemistry or a related discipline (physical science, life science or engineering)

A master’s degree in analytical, medicinal, environmental or theoretical chemistry

$56K

 

7%

Chemical Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Chemistry

Chemical technology

An associate's degree in chemical technology

A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or chemical technology

$41K

 

4%

Chemical Technologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Chemistry

Chemical technology

A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or chemical technology

$49K

 

2%

Conservation Scientist (Forester)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Environmental science

Agricultural science

Natural resources

Rangeland management

Ecology

A bachelor's degree in environmental or agricultural science, natural resources, rangeland management or ecolog

$50K

 

6%

Dentist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Dental medicine

Dental surgery

DDS (Doctor of Dental Surgery) and DMD (Doctor of Dental Medicine)

A bachelor's degree in dental medicine and dental surgery

$149K

 

19%

Electronics Drafter

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Electronic drafting

An associate's degree program in electronic drafting

A bachelor's degree program in electronic drafting

$56K

 

7%

Engineer (Chemical, Civil, Electrical, Industrial, Mechanical, etc.)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth
Engineering (miscellaneous)

A bachelor's degree in engineering (+ licensure and certification depending on state)

The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) and the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) examinations

$63K - $103K

 

5%

Geologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Geology

Earth sciences

A bachelor's degree program in geology, earth sciences or a related scientific field

Upper-level supervisory positions require a master’s or a doctoral degree

$104K

 

14%

Industrial Machinery Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Industrial mechanics and maintenance technology

A high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate

On-the-job training (+ licensure and certification)

Upper-level positions require an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree in Industrial mechanics and maintenance technology

$52K

 

7%

Machinist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Machining and manufacturing

Industrial automation engineering technology

Industrial engineering

High school diploma or equivalent; post-secondary programs and apprenticeships

Upper-level positions may require an associate’s or bachelor’s degrees

$39K

 

0%

Mechanical Drafter

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Drafting

Drafting and design technology

Mechanical drafting

An associate's degree in drafting, or a related field

$51K

 

7%

Medical Laboratory Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Medical laboratory sciences

A high school diploma

An associate's degree in medical laboratory sciences

$50K

 

13%

Movie Producer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Theater management

Film studies

Cinematography

Communications

Journalism

A bachelor's degree in theater management, film studies, cinematography, communications or journalism

$69K

 

3%

Nurse (A Registered Nurse, RN)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Nursing

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree in nursing

$71K

 

15%

Physicist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Physics

A bachelor’s, master’s, and a doctoral degree in physics

A postdoctoral fellowship may be helpful

$119K

 

14%

Sociologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Traditional sociology

Applied sociology

A bachelor’s, master’s, and a doctoral degree in sociology

$72K - $79K

 

15%

Theatrical Arts Producer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Theater management

Cinematography

Film

Acting

Journalism

Communications

Business

A bachelor’s degree in theater management, cinematography, film, acting, journalism, communications, business or another related subject

$90K

 

9%

Tool-and-Die Maker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Tool and die technology

A high school diploma

On-the-job training (+ licensure and certification)

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree in tool and die technology

$48K

 

1%

People with Psychiatric Disorders

A psychiatric disorder is a mental illness diagnosed by a mental health professional that greatly disturbs thinking, moods, and/or behavior and seriously increases the risk of disability, pain, death, or loss of freedom.

Barber

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma or GED (+ licensure and certification)

$28K

 

13%

Career Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

Psychology

Human services

An associate’s or a bachelor's degree in psychology, or a related discipline (+ licensure and certification)

A master’s in psychology may be required for higher-level positions

$56K

 

13%

Case Manager

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Nursing

Psychology

Counseling

Heath services

Human services

Education services

A bachelor’s degree in nursing, psychology or counseling (+ case manager certification)

A master’s degree in health, human or education services, or a related field may be helpful

$76K

 

27%

Child and Family Social Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

Sociology

Psychology

A bachelor's degree in social work, sociology, psychology, or a related field

A master’s degree for upper-level positions

$43K

 

16%

Clinical Social Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

A bachelor's and a master’s degrees in social work (+licensure and certification

$67K

 

19%

Computer Animation Specialist (Computer Graphics Specialist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer animation

Multimedia design

Fine arts

Graphic design

A bachelor's degree in computer animation, multimedia design, fine arts, graphic design, or a related field

$85K - $110K

 

8%

Computer Hardware Engineer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Computer engineering

Electrical engineering

A bachelor's degree in computer engineering or electrical engineering

$103K

 

5%

Cosmetologist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Cosmetology

A high school diploma (+ licensure, certification, and apprenticeships)

An associate’s degree in cosmetology

$26K

 

13%

Dental Hygiene Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Dental hygiene

An associate's degree in dental hygiene

A bachelor’s and a master's degree programs in dental hygiene may be helpful

$73K

 

20%

Electrician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

A high school diploma (+ licensure, certification, and apprenticeships)

$53K

 

9%

Electronics Engineer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Electronics engineering

A bachelor's degree in electronics engineering (+ licensure)

A master’s degree may required for upper-level positions

$75K

 

7%

Electronics Engineering Technician

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Electronics engineering

A high school diploma

On-the-job training (+licensure, certification, and apprenticeships)

An associate’s degree in electronics engineering

$42K

 

2%

Geriatric Social Worker (Gerontology Social Worker)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

Sociology

Human services

Psychology

A bachelor's degree in social work or sociology

A master’s degree may be helpful to obtain higher-level positions

$42K

 

22%

Hairdresser 

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Cosmetology

No formal education is required

A high diploma (+ licensure and certification)

An associate's degree in cosmetology

$25K

 

13%

Hair Stylist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Cosmetology

No formal education is required

A high diploma (+ licensure and certification)

An associate's degree in cosmetology

$25K

 

13%

Healthcare Social Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

A bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in social work

$60K

 

22%

Massage Therapist

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Massage therapy

A high school diploma or GED

An associate’s degree in massage therapy (+licensure and certification)

$40K

 

26%

Mental Health Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychology

Education

A bachelor's and a master’s degrees in psychology, education or other related field

$42K - $43K 

 

23%

Nail Technician (Manicurist, Pedicurist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Cosmetology

A high school diploma or GED (+ licensure and certification)

An associate’s degree in cosmetology

$24K

 

10%

Physical Therapy Assistant (A Physical Therapist’s Aide)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Physical therapy

An associate’s degree in physical therapy (+licensure and certification)

$56K

 

30%

Rehabilitation Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Counseling

A bachelor’s degree in counseling

A master’s degree and a doctorate may be helpful to obtain higher-level positions

$55K - $58K

 

13%

Shampooer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

No formal education is required

On-the-job training

$19K

 

15%

School Social Worker

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Social work

A bachelor's and a master’s degree in social work

$44K

 

12%

Teaching Assistant (A Teacher’s Aide)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Child development, or a related field

A high school diploma or an associate's degree in child development (+ licensure and certification)

$27K

 

8%

Welder

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Welding Technology

A high school diploma (+ on-the-job training and licensure)

An associate’s or a bachelor's degree in welding technology

$38K

 

6%

People with Learning Disabilities

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some people can be more accurately described as having a "Learning Difference", thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping.

Addictions Counselor (Certified or Licensed Substance Abuse Counselor)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychology

Human services

Substance abuse counseling

An associate's or bachelor's degrees in psychology or human services

A master's degree in substance abuse counseling

$44K

 

23%

Blogger (Vlogger)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous, or no degree

Formal education is not required

$19K - $79K

 

8%

Broadcast News Anchor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Journalism

Communications

Broadcast

Mass communications

A bachelor's degree in journalism, communications or a related field for entry-level positions

A master’s degree in broadcast, journalism, mass communications

$83K

 

-9%

Content Marketer

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Marketing

Journalism

A bachelor's degree in marketing or journalism

$60K - $74K

 

16%

Correspondent (News Analyst, Reporter)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Journalism

Communications

A bachelor's degree in journalism, communications or a related media writing major

$51K

 

-9%

Counselor (School Counselor)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Counseling

Education

Psychology

School counseling

Education psychology

A bachelor's degree in counseling, education, or psychology

A master's degree in school counseling or education psychology

$42K - $44K

 

13%

Digital Marketer (Digital Marketing Specialist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

General marketing

Internet marketing, or a related field

Advertising

An associate's degree in marketing for entry-level positions

A bachelor’s degree (or a master’s) in general marketing for higher level positions

$62K - $77K

 

19%

Director (Film Director)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

No formal education is required

A bachelor’s degree in journalism, film, communication, acting, arts management, or a related field may be helpful

$105K - $167K

 

9%

Entrepreneur

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Miscellaneous

Business

Business administration

Communication

Marketing

Finance

Psychology

Graphic design

ROTC

Economics

Computer science

No formal education is required

An associate’s / bachelor’s / master’s degrees in business, business administration, or a related field may be helpful

$68K

(~$10K - ~$130K)

 

8%

Film Editor (Video Editor)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Broadcasting

Film

A bachelor’s degree in broadcasting or film

$44K

 

13%

Mental Health Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Psychology

Education

A bachelor's and a master’s degrees in psychology, education or other related field (+ licensure and certification)

$42K - $70K

 

23%

Nursing Assistant

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Nursing

A high school diploma or GED (+ on-the-job training and licensure)

An associate’s or a bachelor’s degree in nursing

$26K

 

11%

PPC Specialist (Paid Search Manager)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Marketing

Business

Information technology

No degree required for entry-level positions (+ certifications)

A bachelor’s degree in marketing, business, or a related field may be required for higher level positions

$54K - $65K

 

23%

Rehabilitation Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Counseling

A bachelor's and a master’s degrees in counseling

A doctorate in counseling may be required for upper level positions

$55K

 

13%

School Counselor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Counseling

Education

Psychology

School counseling

Education psychology

A bachelor's degree in counseling, education, or psychology

A master's degree in school counseling or education psychology

$54K

 

13%

SEO Specialist (SEM Specialist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Marketing

Business

Computer science

Information technology

A bachelor's degree in marketing, business, computer science, or an information technology-related field

$42K

 

18%

SMM Specialist (Social Media Specialist)

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Communications

Journalism

Marketing, or a related field

A bachelor's degree in communications, journalism, or marketing

$45K

 

9%

Video Editor

Field(s) of Study Required Education Level Average
salary
Projected
job growth

Film and television

Film studies

Communications

Cinematography

Bachelor of Arts or no degree (internships, apprenticeships)

$60K

 

13%

Conclusion

The main barriers to employing workers with disabilities include lack of awareness on the part of business owners and managers, fears and concerns about accommodation issues and costs, and fear of legal liability (Kaye et al., “Why Don’t Employers Hire”). Most fears are unfounded, and overshadow the overriding benefits and potential increased revenue to be realized by adopting a proactive and inclusive stance in hiring practices. Small businesses are in a unique position to capitalize on the disabled labor pool in terms of branding and marketing, tax incentives, reduced employee turnover and absenteeism, increased revenue, and enriched workplace culture.

Summary of Key Points

 

  • In the current conversation regarding diversity and inclusion, individuals with disabilities are often overlooked, even though they represent one of the largest minority groups in the United States.

 

 

  • Since 2018, Opporty has been committed to the UN Global Compact corporate responsibility initiative and its principles in the areas of human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption.

 

  • Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are important contributors to local economic stability, and represent an ideal platform for promoting the hiring of employees with disabilities.

 

  • According to the US Department of Labor, 57 percent of accommodations made for disabled employees cost nothing, and most cost less than $500.

 

 

  • Stereotypes about disabled workers are often unfounded, and not based on first-hand experience.

 

  • Businesses that hire disabled workers can boost brand awareness, increase workplace diversity, add value to workplace culture and enhance the company’s public image.

 

  • Disabled employees tend to be loyal and conscientious workers, with low rates of absenteeism and high levels of job performance.

 

  • SMEs are better positioned to accommodate disabled workers due to flexibility in policy making and job creation, and accessibility to key decision-makers.

 

References

Callahan, Michael, Cary Griffin, and Dave Hammis. "Twenty years of employment for persons with significant disabilities: A retrospective." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 35.3 (2011): 163-172.

 

Chan, F, D. Strauser, P. Maher, E. Lee, R. Jones and E. Johnson, “Demand-side factors related to employment of people with disabilities: a survey of employers in the Midwest region of the United States,” J Occup Rehabil 20 (2010), 412–419.

 

Cornell University ILR School Employment and Disability Institute. “Employer Practices and Policies Regarding the Employment of Persons with Disabilities.” https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1328&context=edicollect

 

Disability Campaign. “7 Benefits of Hiring People with Disabilities.” http://disabilitycampaign.org/media/filer_public/38/a4/38a4890a-fde0-41ec-8db7-d7a22f3c0ffd/7-benefits-of-hiring-a-person-with-a-disability.pdf

 

Fraser, Robert, et al. "Understanding employers' hiring intention in relation to qualified workers with disabilities." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 35.1 (2011): 1-11.

 

IRS. ‘Tax Benefits for Businesses Who Have Employees with Disabilities.” https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/tax-benefits-for-businesses-who-have-employees-with-disabilities

 

Kaye, H. Stephen, Lita H. Jans, and Erica C. Jones. "Why don’t employers hire and retain workers with disabilities?." Journal of occupational rehabilitation 21.4 (2011): 526-536.

 

Lengnick-Hall, Mark L., Philip M. Gaunt, and Adrienne AR Brooks. "Why employers don’t hire people with disabilities: A survey of the literature." College of Business, University of Texas at San Antonio (2001).

 

Linkow, Peter. “Opening the Doors of Small Businesses to Employees with Disabilities.” Profiles in Diversity Journal July 30, 2014. http://www.diversityjournal.com/13968-disabilities-13968/

 

Office of Disability Employment Policy. “Strategic Connections: Recruiting Candidates with Disabilities.” https://www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/fact/connect.htm

 

United States Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS). “Disability Status.” https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/note/US/DIS010217

 

United States Department of Labor. “Americans with Disabilities Act.” https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/disability/ada

 

University of New Hampshire Institute on Disability/UCDE. “National survey demonstrates that Americans with disabilities are striving to work and overcoming barriers.” April 12, 2018. https://iod.unh.edu/article/2018/04/national-survey-demonstrates-americans-disabilities-are-striving-work-and-overcoming

 

Workplace Initiative. “Disability Employment and Inclusion: Your Guide To Success.” https://workplaceinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Disability-Employment-and-Inclusion_Your-Guide-to-Success.pdf